Lewis, Marianne W., M. Ann Welsh, and Gordon E. Dehler (2002), "Product development tensions: Exploring contrasting styles of project management", Academy of Management Journal, 45, 546-564.
- The importance, in a given project, of the project schedule, interim goals, and test results for tracking progress.
Being on schedule.
Being ahead of schedule.
Producing "hard data" (for instance, test results).
Accomplishing specific interim project goals.