Variable Details:


Seng, Elizabeth K. , and Kenneth A. Holroyd (2010), "Dynamics of Changes in Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control Expectancies in the Behavioral and Drug Treatment of Severe Migraine", Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 40, 235-247.



  • The extent to which individuals with recurrent headache expect the occurrence, worsening and improvement of their headaches are influenced primarily by the actions of medical professionals.


  • Following the doctor’s medication regimen is the best way for me not to be laid-up with a headache.


  • Martin, N. J., K. A. Holroyd, and D. B. Penzien (1990), "The headache-specific locus of control scale: Adaptation to recurrent headaches.", Headache, 30, 729-734. [Endnote]