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- Accounts for variation in labor market conditions and normative differences in the likelihood of quitting one's job. Measured how easy or difficult it would be to quit one's job financially, in terms of getting another job and in terms of family and home life.
- Singelis, T. M. (1995), "Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism: A theoretical and measurement refinement", Cross-Cultural Research. [Endnote]
- Hanisch, K.A., and C.L. Hulin (1991), "General attitudes and organizational withdrawal: An evaluation of a causal model.", Journal of Vocational Behavior, 39, 110-128. [Endnote]
- Hanisch, K.A. (1990), "A causal model of general attitudes, work withdrawal, and job withdrawal, including retirement.".