Lee, Choong C., and Varun Grover (1999), "Exploring Mediation Between Environmental and Structual Attributes: The Penetration of Communication Technologies in Manufacturing Organzations", Journal of management Information Systems, 16, 187-217.
- The rate of change in marketing practices, product sustainability, consumer demand and tastes, competitors, and production technology and the unpredictability of these changes.
Our firm rarely changes marketing practices to keep up with the market and competitors.
Actions of competitors are easy to predict (as in some primary industries).
Demand and consumer tastes are easy to forecast (e.g., for milk companies).
Our production technology changes very little (e.g., in steel production).
The rate at which products become obsolete is very high (as in some fashion goods and semiconductors).
- Miller, D., and P. H. Friesen (1982), "Innovation in conservative and entrepreneurial firms: two models of strategic momentum.", Strategic Management Journal, 3, 1-25. [Endnote]