Variable Details:


Lee, Choong C., and Varun Grover (1999), "Exploring Mediation Between Environmental and Structual Attributes: The Penetration of Communication Technologies in Manufacturing Organzations", Journal of management Information Systems, 16, 187-217.



  • The rate of change in marketing practices, product sustainability, consumer demand and tastes, competitors, and production technology and the unpredictability of these changes.


  • Our firm rarely changes marketing practices to keep up with the market and competitors.
  • Actions of competitors are easy to predict (as in some primary industries).
  • Demand and consumer tastes are easy to forecast (e.g., for milk companies).
  • Our production technology changes very little (e.g., in steel production).
  • The rate at which products become obsolete is very high (as in some fashion goods and semiconductors).


  • Miller, D., and P. H. Friesen (1982), "Innovation in conservative and entrepreneurial firms: two models of strategic momentum.", Strategic Management Journal, 3, 1-25. [Endnote]