Variable Details:


Frese, Michael, Doris Fay, and Harry Garst (2007), "Making Things Happen: Reciprocal Relationships Between Work Chracteristics and Personal Initiative in a Four-Wave Longitudinal Structural Equation Model", Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1084-1102.




  • I judge my abilities to be high.
  • When I am confronted with a new task, I am often afraid of not being able to handle it.
  • If I want to achieve something, I can overcome setbacks without giving up my goal.


  • Speier, C. (1997), "Generalized self-efficacy as a mediator and moderator between control and complexity at work and personal initiative: A longitudinal field study in East Germany", Human Performance, 171-192. [Endnote]