Weeks, Sandra Kenney, Paul E. McGann, and Teresa King Michaels (2003), "Comparing Various Short-Form Geriatric Depression Scales Leads to the GDS-5/15", Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 35, 133-137.
Are you basically satisfied with your life?
Do you often get bored?
Do you often feel helpless?
Do you prefer to stay home rather than going out and doing new things?
Do you feel pretty worthless the way you are now?
- Hoyl, M.T., C.A. Alessi, and J.O. Harker (1999), "Development and testing of a five-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale", Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47, 873-878. [Endnote]