Kara, Magfiret, and Arzu Mirici (2004), "Loneliness, Depression, and Social Support of Turkish Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease and Their Spouses", Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 36, 331-336.
- An unpleasant emotional state in which a person feels apart from, yet in need of, others.
- Russell, D., L.A. Peplau, and C.E. Cutrona (1980), "The revised UCLA loneliness scale: Concurrent and discriminant validity evidence", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 472-480. [Endnote]